Information about COVID-19 related topics continues to change rapidly as researchers discover, test, and improve what we know about the virus and how we prevent and treat it. This page is created specifically to support an assignment in HPE 295, but we also have a guide specifically created to provide current and credible resources for those interested in COVID-19.
Below are the sources the librarians suggest for the data you will need to answer the questions posed by your assignment. Not all the requested data is being collected reliably, so you may need to do some calculations, make inferences, or note where you are unable to locate the information. You may also find additional sources with conflicting information. Please also contact your instructor or a librarian if you have additional questions.
For YOUR age group, what % of the US population-- both vaccinated and unvaccinated --- has been infected with the COVID virus?
The CDC provides data about case rates by age and vaccination status from agencies that report it. This is not a cumulative number but a weekly measure of positive tests.
The CDC, using infection-induced antibody seroprevalence studies, estimates that as of the end of January 2022 about 43% of the US population has had COVID-19. The rate in Oregon is estimated to be about 28%, with cases in the 0-17 age range, the group with the highest percentage, at around 58%. The percentage falls for each progressively older age group with closer to 23% of the 65+ population in Oregon estimated to show infection-induced antibodies. The CDC also cautions that the presence of these antibodies should not be conflated with immunity.
A study published in Nature estimates that nearly a third of the US population had COVID-19 by the end of 2020, but this data is not divided by age. This would have been before vaccines were widely available. Additional articles discuss this research in a more accessible way:
What percent had co-morbidities?
The CDC continues to update their list of medical conditions that increase a person's risk of becoming severely ill with COVID-19. They also provide county-by-county estimates for the percentage of the population diagnosed with five chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart disease, diagnosed diabetes, and obesity.
For YOUR age group, what are the risks associated with getting injected with the COVID vaccination? Statistically, what are the possible side effects for those who receive the vaccination?
Reactions and adverse events identified in the clinical trials are posted for each approved vaccine:
Some people cite VAERS, the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, when discussing risks associated with the Covid vaccine, but since this database allows anyone to report anything that they experience following a vaccine without determining whether it was caused by the vaccine, it is not useful as a source to cite vetted potential risks and/or side effects. According to VAERS:
VAERS is a passive reporting system, meaning it relies on individuals to send in reports of their experiences to CDC and FDA. VAERS is not designed to determine if a vaccine caused a health problem, but is especially useful for detecting unusual or unexpected patterns of adverse event reporting that might indicate a possible safety problem with a vaccine. This way, VAERS can provide CDC and FDA with valuable information that additional work and evaluation is necessary to further assess a possible safety concern.
For YOUR age group, what are the risks for remaining unvaccinated?
For YOUR age group, what happened to those who were unvaccinated and contracted COVID?
Rates of Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 Hospitalizations by Vaccination Status. The first chart is for the age group 18 years or younger. The second chart has a drop-down menu for the remaining age groups. Refer to the line on the chart indicating “rate in unvaccinated persons.”
What percent of those who were unvaccinated and contracted COVID died in your age group?
Rates of COVID-19 Deaths by Vaccination Status. You can select “Deaths” under Outcome to the left of the chart. You can also select an Age Group from the tab at the top right of the chart. Refer to the line on the chart indicating “unvaccinated.”
What percent of those who were unvaccinated and contracted COVID had mild symptoms in your age group?
For your age group, what happened to those who were vaccinated but still contracted COVID?
This report includes only those vaccine breakthrough cases which are reported to public health following a positive test result. Many vaccine breakthrough cases are believed to experience no symptoms or minimal symptoms. These cases are unlikely to undergo testing for COVID-19 and be reported to public health. Therefore, the true number of vaccine breakthrough cases is unknown.
The EBSCO databases search a wide variety of publications for varying audiences. Look closely at the source and the timeliness of the materials you select, and ask a librarian for help if you are struggling to find what you need. There are also EBSCO tutorials available.
Elezkurtaj, S., Greuel, S., Ihlow, J. et al. Causes of death and comorbidities in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Sci Rep 11, 4263 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82862-5
Klein NP, Lewis N, Goddard K, et al. Surveillance for Adverse Events After COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination. JAMA. 2021;326(14):1390–1399. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.15072
Mason KE., Maudsley G, McHale P, et al. Age-Adjusted Associations Between Comorbidity and Outcomes of COVID-19: A Review of the Evidence From the Early Stages of the Pandemic. Frontiers in Public Health. 2021;9:1124. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.584182
Rosenberg ES, Holtgrave DR, Dorabawila V, et al. New COVID-19 Cases and Hospitalizations Among Adults, by Vaccination Status — New York, May 3–July 25, 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021;70:1150-1155. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7034e1